The median total household income for commercial U.S. farms is estimated to decline from $239,526 in 2012 to $200,090 in 2017.
By comparison, the median farm income for residence and intermediate farms is estimated to remain relatively unchanged. In 2017, the median total household income for residence and commercial farms remained above the median income for all U.S. households ($63,172), despite declines in total income.
Farm households rely on a combination of on-farm and off-farm sources of income. On-farm sources include income from the farm business, which is determined by farm costs and returns that often vary from year to year.
In any given year, a significant number of farm households report negative farm income.
Off-farm sources—including wage income, nonfarm business earnings, dividends, and transfers—are the main contributor to household income for residence and intermediate farms.
The heavier reliance on off-farm income of these farms makes them less susceptible to changes in farming costs and returns than commercial farms.
Because households operating commercial farms rely most on on-farm sources of income, they experience the largest drop in their total household income when farm sector income falls.
This chart uses data from the new ERS and NASS Agricultural Resource Management Survey webtool, released December 2018.